SAM balancing methods and programs

The Modelling and Policy Impact Analysis (MPIA) program assists developing country researchers in constructing models of their national economy to simulate the impact of macroeconomic shocks/policies on various dimensions of poverty and welfare. To do so, it applies a combination of macro-micro modelling and simulation techniques including, for the macroeconomic level approach, a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) framework. CGE models are usually built on the basis of data assembled in a Social Accounting Matrix (SAM), which needs to be balanced. On this page, modelers will find SAM-balancing tools which have been developed or adapted by PEP researchers.

SAMBAL is a simple computer program to balance a SAM. Computable general equilibrium modeling requires a consistent and coherent benchmark data set, usually organized in the form of a Social Accounting Matrix (SAM). These data generally come from quite diverse sources and correspond to different periods of time. As a result, they often present inconsistencies. SAMBAL makes it possible to reconcile this information in order to balance a SAM. The program minimizes the changes to the base data using one of two optimizing techniques, cross-entropy (the default) or least squares. The program is an attractive and easy alternative to the arbitrary and time-consuming manual and other haphazard methods sometimes used to balance SAMs.

GPCEMAEconomic Systems Research, 21(4), p. 399-408.

Related resources include

Robinson, Sherman. 2013. cesam2.gms : Cross Entropy SAM Estimation program:

Free public access under a Creative Commons license

For detailed information, follow the links below:


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